The major differences between a resume and a curriculum vitae are the length, what is included, and the purpose.
A resume is typically a brief and concise (one or two page) summary, including your name and contact information, education, work experience, and skills. A resume’s information does not have to be in chronological order, and can be shuffled around to best suit the applicant. It is in the applicant’s best interest to adapt it with every position being applied for, with the goal being to make the individual stand out from the competition.
A curriculum vitae, in contrast, is a fairly detailed overview (can stretch well beyond two pages) of your life’s accomplishments, especially those relevant to the realm of academia. It tends to be organized chronologically and should make it easy to get an overview of an individual’s full working career. A CV is static and does not change for different positions.
A typical CV will include: your name and contact information, areas of interest, education, grants, honors, awards, publications and presentations, employment and experience, scholarly or professional memberships, and references.